James Madison
James Madison

 

James Madison

 4th President of the United States

In office
March 4, 1809 – March 4, 1817
Vice Presidents ·         George Clinton (1809–1812)

·         None (1812–1813)

·         Elbridge Gerry (1813–1814)

·         None (1814–1817)

Preceded by Thomas Jefferson
Succeeded by James Monroe
5th United States Secretary of State
In office
May 2, 1801 – March 3, 1809
President Thomas Jefferson
Preceded by John Marshall
Succeeded by Robert Smith
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from 
Virginia‘s 15th district
In office
March 4, 1793 – March 4, 1797
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by John Dawson
Member of the U.S. House of Representatives
from 
Virginia‘s 5th district
In office
March 4, 1789 – March 4, 1793
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by George Hancock
Delegate to the Congress of the Confederation from Virginia
In office
March 1, 1781 – November 1, 1783
Preceded by Position established
Succeeded by Thomas Jefferson
Personal details
Born March 16, 1751
Port Conway, Virginia Colony, British America
Died June 28, 1836 (aged 85)
Orange, Virginia, U.S.
Resting place Montpelier (Orange, Virginia)
Political party Democratic-Republican
Height 5 ft 4 in (163 cm)
Spouse(s) Dolley Payne Todd (m. 1794; his death 1836)
Children John Payne Todd (stepson)
Residence Montpelier
Alma mater Princeton University
Profession Planter, college administrator
Religion Deist
Episcopalian
Signature  Cursive signature in ink

 

Conceived on March 16, 1751, in Port Conway, Virginia, James Madison composed the first drafts of the U.S. Constitution, co-composed the Federalist Papers and supported the Bill of Rights. He set up the Democrat-Republican Party with President Thomas Jefferson, and got to be president himself in 1808. Madison started the War of 1812, and served two terms in the White House with first woman Dolley Madison. He kicked the bucket on June 28, 1836, at the Montpelier home in Orange County, Virginia.

 

One of America’s Founding Fathers, James Madison manufactured the U.S. Constitution in the late 1700s. He likewise made the establishment for the Bill of Rights, went about as President Thomas Jefferson’s secretary of state, and served two terms as president himself.

 

Conceived in 1751, James Madison experienced childhood in Orange County, Virginia. He was the most established of 12 youngsters, seven of whom lived to adulthood. His dad, James, was an effective grower and possessed more than 3,000 sections of land of area and many slaves. He was likewise a powerful figure in province issues.

 

In 1762, Madison was sent to a life experience school keep running by Donald Robertson in King and Queen County, Virginia. He came back to his dad’s bequest in Orange County, Virginia—called Montpelier—after five years. His dad had him stay home and get private coaching in light of the fact that he was worried about Madison’s wellbeing. He would encounter episodes of sick wellbeing for the duration of his life. Following two years, Madison at long last set off for college in 1769, enlisting at the College of New Jersey—now known as Princeton University. There, Madison examined Latin, Greek, science and reasoning among different subjects. Graduating in 1771, he kept focused while longer to proceed with his studies with the school’s leader, Reverend John Witherspoon.

 

Coming back to Virginia in 1772, James Madison soon got himself made up for lost time in the pressures between the pilgrims and the British powers. He was chosen to the Orange County Committee of Safety in December of 1774, and joined the Virginia volunteer army as a colonel the next year. Keeping in touch with school companion William Bradford, Madison detected that “There is something close by that might incredibly enlarge the historical backdrop of the world.”

 

The scholarly James Madison was to a greater degree an essayist than a warrior, however. What’s more, he put his gifts to great use in 1776 at the Virginia Convention, as Orange County’s illustrative. Around that time, he met Thomas Jefferson, and the pair soon started what might turn into a deep rooted fellowship. At the point when Madison got an arrangement to serve on the panel responsible for composing Virginia’s constitution, he worked with George Mason on the draft. One of his exceptional commitments was revamping a portion of the dialect about religious flexibility.

 

In 1777, James Madison lost his offer for a seat in the Virginia Assembly, however he was later named to the Governor’s Council. He was a solid supporter of the American-French organization together amid the transformation, and singularly took care of a great part of the gathering’s correspondence with France. In 1780, he went to Philadelphia to serve as one of Virginia’s representatives to Continental Congress.

 

In 1783, James Madison came back to Virginia and the state governing body. There, he turned into a champion for the partition of chapel and state and got Virginia’s Statute of Religious Freedom, a reconsidered form of a report penned by Jefferson in 1777, went in 1786. The next year, James Madison handled a much all the more difficult government arrangement—the U.S. Constitution.

 

In 1787, James Madison spoke to Virginia at the Constitution Convention. He was a federalist on a fundamental level, in this way crusaded for a solid focal government. In the Virginia Plan, he communicated his thoughts regarding framing a three-section national government, comprising of official, administrative and legal branches. He thought it was vital for this new structure to have an arrangement of governing rules, so as to keep the misuse of force by any one gathering.

 

While a large number of Madison’s thoughts were incorporated into the Constitution, the report itself confronted some resistance in his local Virginia and different provinces. He then joined Alexander Hamilton and John Jay in an exceptional push to get the Constitution confirmed, and the three men composed a progression of enticing letters that were distributed in New York daily papers, on the whole known as The Federalist papers. Back in Virginia, Madison figured out how to outflank such Constitution rivals as Patrick Henry to secure the record’s sanction.

 

Running on the Democratic-Republican ticket, James Madison won the 1808 presidential decision by a wide edge. He vanquished Federalist Charles C. Pinckney and Independent Republican George Clinton, securing about 70 percent of the constituent votes. It was an amazing triumph, considering the poor general supposition of the Embargo Act of 1807.

 

One test of Madison’s first term was growing strains between the United States and Great Britain. There had as of now been issues between the two nations over the seizure of American ships and teams. The Embargo Act was canceled in 1809, and another act diminished the exchange ban down to two nations: Great Britain and France. This new law, known as the Non-Intercourse Act, did nothing to enhance the circumstance. American vendors ignored the demonstration and exchanged with these countries in any case. Thus, American ships and groups were still gone after.

 

In Congress, a gathering of vocal legislators began to require a war against the British. These men, at times known as “Warhawks,” included Henry Clay of Kentucky and John Calhoun of South Carolina. While Madison stressed that the country couldn’t successfully battle a war with Great Britain, he comprehended that numerous American natives would not remain for these proceeded with ambushes on American transports any longer.

 

The United States announced war on Britain in June of 1812. While his own particular gathering bolstered this move, Madison confronted resistance from the Federalists, who nicknamed the contention “Mr. Madison’s War.” In the beginning of the war, it was clear that the U.S. Naval force was outmatched by British strengths. James Madison still figured out how to win the presidential decision a couple of months after the fact, destroying New York City Mayor DeWitt Clinton.

 

The War of 1812, as it is currently known, delayed into Madison’s second term. The contention took a dull turn in 1814, when British powers attacked Maryland. As they advanced toward Washington, James Madison and his administration needed to escape the capital. English warriors smoldered numerous official structures once they came to Washington that August. The White House and the Capitol building were among the structures decimated.

 

The next month, U.S. troops could stop another British attack in the North. What’s more, Andrew Jackson, however his officers were dwarfed, accomplished a noteworthy triumph over the British in the Battle of New Orleans in 1815. Both sides consented to end the contention soon thereafter, with the marking of the Treaty of Ghent.

 

Leaving office in 1817, James Madison and Dolley resigned at the end of the day to Montpelier. James Madison kept himself occupied by running the estate and serving on an extraordinary board to make the University of Virginia, with the help of Thomas Jefferson. The school opened in 1825, with Jefferson as its minister. The next year, after Jefferson’s demise, James Madison expected authority of the college.

 

In 1829, Madison quickly came back to open life, serving as an agent to the state’s Constitutional Convention. He was additionally dynamic in the American Colonization Society, which he had helped to establish in 1816 with Robert Finley, Andrew Jackson and James Monroe. This association expected to return liberated slaves to Africa. In 1833, James Madison turned into the general public’s leader.

 

James Madison passed on June 28, 1836, at the Montpelier bequest. After his demise, his 1834 message, “Guidance to My Country,” was discharged. He had particularly asked for that the note not be made open until after his passing. In some portion of his last political remark, he composed: “The exhortation closest to my heart and most profound in my feelings is that the Union of the States be appreciated and propagated. Let the open adversary to it be viewed as a Pandora with her case opened; and the hidden one, as the Serpent inching with his destructive wiles into Paradise.”

 

Viewed as a little, calm scholarly, James Madison utilized the profundity and expansiveness of his insight to make another kind of government. His thoughts and musings formed a country, and set up the rights that Americans still appreciates.

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